Red China (Eastern Manchuria)
(3 concentration camps, 1 prison)
Forced-labor concentration camps: 99
1 for women (Jilin Province)
Torture-facility prisons: 11
*Note: In this region, the locations of 11 camps and 4 prisons are not precisely known. These are distributed randomly on the map within their respective provinces.
Wu, H.H., Laogai: The Chinese Gulag, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 1992.