From the Archives

We Are the Next Target

Terrorism and the Betrayal of Israel

(Audiotape documentary, April 1994)

Side B
– Continued from Part 1 –

When Karl Marx wrote his book, A World Without Jews, he permanently set the tone for Communist anti-Semitism. He called for “the emancipation of mankind from Judaism” and for the end of all religious faith.59 V. I. Lenin applied this principle against the Jewish longing for Israel in 1903, declaring that “this Zionist idea is absolutely false and essentially reactionary.”60

The Communist drive to abolish Judaism took on a special urgency after World War I, when Jewish settlement in Palestine began interfering with Communist plans for a socialist, pan-Arab government. Over the next few decades, the Communists instigated Arab riots against Jews and organized anti-Zionist movements.61 These tactics failed, and the nation of Israel was reborn in 1948.

But in 1964 the Soviet KGB made a decision to escalate wars of national liberation around the world. Its spending on terrorism grew ten-fold, and training centers were set up throughout the Communist Bloc. In less than two years, Cuba hosted the Tricontinental Conference — a meeting of 513 representatives from 83 terrorist groups. The Cuban Communist regime thus became a coordinating center for this growing international terrorist network.62

Israel was vaulted to the top of the list of target countries. The pro-Soviet dictator of Egypt, Gamel Abdel Nasser, launched a new revolutionary group in 1964 — the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).63 Declaring the palestinian Arabs an “oppressed class” who needed to be “liberated” from Israeli rule, the PLO announced that it would destroy the nation of Israel altogether and replace it with a socialist government of Palestine.

From the beginning, the PLO has been a thoroughly Communist organization under the direct control of the Soviet KGB. Among its founding leaders was Ahmed Jibril, a Syrian army officer who founded the Palestinian Liberation Front in the 1950s. A self-proclaimed Marxist, Jibril was recruited into the KGB, trained in the Soviet Union, and supported by East Germany and Bulgaria as his group carried out bombings of airplanes, schoolbuses, and other Israeli targets. The PLO was organized around Jibril’s group, and today he continues his terrorist attacks as head of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine — General Command, one of the several groups under the PLO umbrella.64

George Habash, another PLO founder, is an open Marxist-Leninist who started the Arab Nationalist Movement in the 1950s that imposed a Communist regime in South Yemen. Supported by the Communist governments of Cuba, North Vietnam, and China, Habash has since founded the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, another PLO group.65

Abu Iyad also helped found the PLO, and has headed its Intelligence and Security Apparatus, making him the number two man in the organization. He has publicly admitted his allegiance to the teachings of Chinese dictator Mao Zedong and other leading Communists.66

But the most famous PLO figure is its leader, Yasir Arafat. As a student at Cairo University in 1952, he became head of the General Union of Palestine Students, and in 1956 represented that leftist organization at the Communist World Festival of Youth, held in Czechoslovakia.67 Arafat has studied the works of Mao Zedong and Che Guevara, and when he visits Moscow he meets with top Soviet Communists.68 He is the head of Fatah, the largest and most powerful group in the PLO.

The Revolutionary Palestinian Communist Party, directly funded by the Soviet Union, sits on the Executive Committee and all other ruling bodies of the PLO.69 The Soviet Union lavishes the PLO with weapons ranging from machine guns to heavy artillery and tanks.70 PLO terrorists are trained and recruited by the KGB in the Soviet Union and other Communist nations.71 And, according to one PLO defector, all key PLO decisions are made only on Soviet approval.72 As a result, the PLO has become the largest and most important terrorist group in existence. It has carried out bombings, hijackings, tortures, and assassinations against civilian targets on six continents. It has served as a conduit for weapons, training, and other support from the Communist Bloc to hundreds of terrorist groups worldwide.73 And Yasir Arafat has openly called for terrorist attacks on the United States.74 As already noted, one of the conspirators in the bombing of New York’s World Trade Center was a PLO member.

The fact that the PLO is not merely an enemy of Israel, but is a cornerstone of the global Communist offensive, has been admitted by Arafat himself. For example, he has declared the United States, not Israel, to be the PLO’s ultimate enemy.75 PLO official George Habash likewise revealed in a 1972 interview that “our enemy is not just Israel, period… We must recognize that our revolution is a phase of world revolution: it is not limited to reconquering Palestine. To be honest, what we want is a war like Vietnam’s. We want another Vietnam, and not just in Palestine but throughout the Arab world.”76 On another occasion, Habash revealed the PLO goal more completely: “Palestine has joined the European Revolution; we have forged organic links with the revolution of the whole world.”77

The Communists have already seized control of several nations of the Middle East since the 1950s, including Algeria, Libya, Syria, Lebanon, North and South Yemen, and Iraq, often referred to as the “radical Arab states.” Each of these countries was conquered through some combination of military coup d’etat, revolution, and invasion. Although some of these governments do not call themselves “Communist,” their leaders are all Marxist socialists whose militaries and secret police have been built, and are directly supervised, by the Soviet Union, and whose governments often include overt Communists at the highest levels.78

The PLO has become a new vehicle for supporting Communist revolutions almost anywhere. The so-called “Islamic” revolution of the Ayatollah Khomeini, for example, was organized by KGB agents and the Communist Party in Iran.79 It was also backed by the PLO, which conducted terrorist attacks against Iran, trained Khomeini’s followers in military and terror tactics, and provided a steady supply of guns.80 Since coming to power, Khomeini’s regime has been armed by the Soviet Union and Communist China.81 Having delivered Iran to the Communists, the PLO announced that it would next turn its attention to Turkey. For years, the PLO had already been training and arming terrorists of the Turkish People’s Liberation Army, creating anarchy in that nation. In 1980, PLO terrorists infiltrated Turkey, disguised themselves as Armenian and Kurdish people, and founded the Armenian Secret Army of Liberation and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party.82 These Communist groups are now stepping up the revolution in Turkey. The PLO has also helped the Communist takeovers in Lebanon, Nicaragua, and Angola, and has carried out or supported similar revolutions against Jordan, El Salvador, South Africa, and many other nations of Latin America, Europe, Africa, and Asia.83

In recent years the PLO and its Communist bosses have created yet another international revolutionary movement: the network of terrorists known as “Islamic fundamentalists.” Like their Liberation Theology counterparts in Christian churches, the muslim fundamentalist leaders are actually atheists and Marxist-Leninists disguised as religious fanatics. Indeed, they are opposed by the traditional muslim leaders for violating the precepts of Islam.84 This radical movement, also known as “Islamic Marxism,” originated in the Russian Bolshevik Party in the 1910s.85 Since the 1970s, the Communist Parties of Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia have officially promoted this new ideology.86 To hide their Communist backing, however, pan-Islamic revolutionaries frequently pretend to be anti-Communist.

Several terrorist groups have been founded on variations of “Islamic Marxism.” In Iran, the Ayatollah Khomeini revived Hezballah (the Party of G-d), which soon collaborated with Iranian Communists, Syria, Libya, and the PLO in extending terrorism beyond the borders of Iran.87 When Hezballah established training camps, the instructors came from such Communist nations as North Korea and Syria, or were Iranians trained by the PLO or the Communist government of Iraq.88 Abbas Zamani, who organized branches of Hezballah in Lebanon and Pakistan, was himself trained by the PLO and has been identified as a probable KGB agent.89 The PLO has provided money, weapons, and intelligence to Hezballah, and has even placed Yasir Arafat’s elite terrorist units under Hezballah command; Hezballah, in return, collaborates with the PLO.90 In Lebanon, meanwhile, members of the Amal Militia have been trained in PLO camps, and the group has been financed by Syria, Libya, and Iran.91 Islamic Jihad, the terrorist group involved in bombing the New York World Trade Center, is armed and coordinated by several top PLO commanders.92 And in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Israel, Hamas, meaning “Islamic Resistance Movement,” receives aid from Iran as well as financing from the PLO on the personal orders of Arafat.93

As we can see, the PLO is truly the central organization in the world terrorist network. But now we must turn our attention to its role in the Communist war to destroy Israel.

The PLO’s war of national liberation

The West Bank of the Jordan River lies on Israel’s eastern side, but is so large that it extends well into the middle of Israel itself. At its closest point, the West Bank’s border is only nine miles from the Mediterranean Sea. Half the city of Jerusalem, Israel’s capital, lies inside this territory. If a hostile military force were to occupy the West Bank, it would control strategic air space that now buffers against air and missile attacks, and it could position troops near the heart of Israel. A lightning invasion launched from the West Bank would easily cut the tiny nation of Israel into northern and southern halves within minutes, giving an enemy an enormous military advantage during a war.

Following the 1973 Yom Kippur War against Israel, the Communists could see that a People’s Republic of Palestine would never replace Israel without first taking control of the West Bank, as well as of the Gaza Strip and Golan Heights, two other territories under Israeli control. Thus in 1974 the ruling council of the PLO officially adopted a two-phase strategy for destroying Israel, in which an armed state of Palestine would be established in the West Bank and Gaza Strip before attacking the rest of Israel. PLO official Abu Iyad boasted in 1988 that “According to the Phased Plan, we will establish a Palestinian state on any part of Palestine that the enemy will retreat from. The Palestinian state will be a stage in our prolonged struggle for the liberation of Palestine on all of its territory.”94

Because of the Phased Plan, the PLO claimed that it was willing to allow Israel to exist — if only temporarily — and that it only wished to create Palestine in the West Bank and Gaza. In other words, the PLO could now pretend to be moderate, while actually stepping up the revolution. But to gain control of the territories in the first place, the PLO had to turn to the time-tested Communist strategy of a war of national liberation. This has, in fact, been the PLO’s master plan since the 1960s, and has recently taken the form of the intifada, Arabic for the “uprising,” now seen in the riots of the West Bank and Gaza. A careful analysis of the intifada reveals that it is indeed part of a classic, seven-step Communist revolution:

Step 1) At a secret 1983 meeting of the PLO, Yasir Arafat explained that the PLO had followed the Communist tactic of provoking a reaction by the target government, in this case Israel. As summarized by authors Neil Livingstone and David Halevy, “The first phase, from 1967 to 1974, said Arafat, involved shocking the world by means of brutal terrorist acts into recognizing the Palestinian issue and placing it at the front of world concerns.”95 Using the methods outlined by Brazilian Communist Carlos Marighella, the PLO has forced Israel to invade Lebanon several times to stop artillery and missile attacks. By hiding its military installations in residential areas, the PLO has caused civilian deaths during Israeli retaliation, which the PLO has then blamed on Israel.96

Step 2) The PLO owns or operates dozens of newspapers and other publications in the Middle East, some of them written in English. It produces films labeled as documentaries, operates news services, and broadcasts numerous radio programs. It is known to bribe or threaten journalists covering the Middle East.97 It also maintains influence through organizations not widely known as PLO front groups; for example, Arafat’s brother runs the Palestinian Red Crescent Society,98 while PLO-affiliated organizations calling themselves “charities” or “educational” groups are active in the United States.99 And leftist groups ranging from the National Lawyers Guild to various civil rights, feminist, and anti-nuclear groups also work with the PLO.100 As a result, the PLO and its allies have been able to plant stories in our news media about alleged Israeli atrocities against civilians, and have created the widespread impression that Israel systematically violates human rights of Palestinians. By painting the revolution as a “spontaneous” uprising of Palestinians, the PLO has also convinced many Americans that Israel cannot hope to win the interminable conflict with the PLO. Such disinformation has eroded sympathy for Israel, setting the stage for further revolution.

Step 3) With the Israeli reputation having come under fire, the U.S. State Department has pressured Israel to begin making concessions to the PLO. When Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, President Reagan rescued the PLO and forced Israel to abandon Beirut. The Bush and Clinton administrations have supported several United Nations resolutions against Israel,101 and President Clinton forced Israel to take back 400 Hamas terrorists after they had been expelled.102 Most importantly, the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, held in 1982, began the call for an international Middle East peace conference, where foreign powers could pressure Israel to yield the West Bank to the PLO.103 The United Nations adopted an identical plan the following year,104 and by 1987 the PLO and the Communist Parties of the United States, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Tunisia, Syria, Egypt, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, and India had also adopted this plan.105 Now the U.S. government has followed suit, with the Bush and Clinton administrations having forced Israel to change its mind and participate in a series of such international conferences.

Step 4) The intifada was born from an extensive network of PLO front groups in the West Bank and Gaza, including medical, agricultural, and women’s associations as well as labor unions and student groups.106 The violence itself was sparked by the Islamic Jihad and the Palestinian Communist Party in 1986 and 1987,107 and soon a Unified National Leadership of the PLO was formed to coordinate the protests and riots.108 The revolution is now being accelerated through religious institutions, schools, and labor unions. Hamas, the so-called “Islamic” group of terrorists, organizes actions through the mosques.109 Many PLO members work as professors at the universities, where they indoctrinate palestinian students.110 Schools and universities in the West Bank and Gaza have become such focal points for violence that Israeli authorities have been periodically forced to shut them down; stores of knives and clubs have been found in the schools, used by radicalized students during riots,111 and guns and hand grenades are now becoming more common.112 Palestinian labor strikes are also on the rise.113 One pro-PLO professor noted that the PLO-dominated labor unions are “a critical weapon in the hand of the Palestinian national movement: at a decisive moment they could paralyze the Israeli economy.”114

Step 5) As in any Communist revolution, the PLO must use terrorism against the very people it claims to be liberating, in order to create an illusion of popular support for the intifada. For many years, the PLO had already been directing many of its terrorist attacks against palestinians and Arabs in general.115 In the intifada, this violence is now used against palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. Terror squads receiving money and orders from the PLO, Islamic Jihad, and Hamas attack people they accuse of collaborating with Israel, although the PLO itself admits the majority of such accusations are false.116 As one journalist has described it, the purpose is purely to intimidate: “Palestinians live in daily terror of these squads. Some common murder techniques are beheading, mutilation, gouging out eyes, cutting off ears or limbs, and pouring molten plastic or acid on a victim’s face.”117 Often the victim is shot or stabbed in broad daylight, in full view of palestinian bystanders.118 Merchants who fail to close their shops when a strike is called, or who do not pay taxes to the PLO, have their shops burned to the ground;119 buses that carry palestinians to work in Israel are also burned, keeping the workers from earning the money to feed their families.120 Some one thousand palestinians have been killed by the terror squads, and many others injured.121

Step 6) As the PLO moves into the final stages of the revolution, it must begin negotiating for Israel’s surrender of the territories while simultaneously escalating the violence. The PLO itself, and particularly Arafat’s group, Fatah, is playing the role of the moderate, sending delegations to the peace conference and asking only for the West Bank and Gaza. Islamic Jihad and Hamas, products of the “Islamic Marxist” movement, angrily condemn the peace meetings. The “good cop/bad cop” strategy was spelled out by a PLO official: “[Hamas says] all of Palestine is ours, and we want to liberate it from the river to the sea in one blow. But… the PLO feels that a Phased Plan must be pursued. Both sides agree on the final objective.”122 Both sides also cooperate closely. The PLO has funded Hamas, for example,123 and some terror squads in the West Bank and Gaza are operated jointly by the PLO’s Fatah with Islamic Jihad and Hamas.124

Step 7) The final step involves betrayal by the U.S. State Department, which pulls the rug out from under the target government and forces it to capitulate to the revolution. Under the Bush administration, the State Department issued a report whitewashing Yasir Arafat and Fatah of involvement in terrorism,125 while the administration itself showed open hostility to the conservative Shamir government, causing nervous Israelis to elect the far-left Labor Party under Yitzhak Rabin.126 The Clinton administration, likewise, exerted direct pressure on Israel to surrender territory to the PLO,127 although Clinton carefully avoided taking credit when the Rabin government finally agreed to give up the Gaza Strip and part of the West Bank.128 Although Arafat simultaneously boasted that the PLO flag “will soon fly over Jerusalem” — Israel’s capital — the Rabin government has since made more concessions to Communist Syria, promising to withdraw from southern Lebanon and the Golan Heights.129 The Clinton administration has meanwhile pressured Israel to disarm the Jewish settlers living in the territories, and to allow United Nations troops to protect incoming PLO forces.130 Naturally, the PLO-orchestrated violence will only accelerate as Israel surrenders more and more strategic land.

The solution: attacking the Achilles’ Heel

If the PLO is allowed to consolidate a new Communist state, it will surely destroy Israel and launch an unlimited global war of terrorism. On the other hand, the PLO’s revolution is not an Arabic or Muslim war. It is a Communist war of national liberation, and it depends entirely on Israeli and American cooperation for its victory. Unless we voluntarily surrender to the PLO, it will never have the strength to conquer Israel. Its support, after all, does not come from the Arabs. So who is really funding the PLO?

The surprising but widely ignored truth is that the United States taxpayer pays virtually the entire bill for PLO terrorism. This has been accomplished through a variety of avenues. The most direct example can be seen in our foreign aid program; the U.S. Agency for International Development has given over $100 million to PLO front groups in the West Bank and Gaza since 1975.131 With the new Israeli agreement to allow a PLO state in the territories, the U.S. has now promised at least $250 million more in such direct financing.132 Indirectly, the U.S. has given the PLO tens of millions of dollars per year through its foreign aid program to Arab nations, which have received as much American aid as Israel since 1948.133 The Arab nations, responding to PLO blackmail and U.S. diplomatic influence, have forwarded some of this American aid to the PLO.134 Saudi Arabia, for example, has been pressured by the Clinton administration to restore its PLO funding.135 Furthermore, U.S. aid to the Soviet Bloc, in the form of industry, technology, and tens of billions of dollars per year, translates into the weapons found in PLO arsenals.136

But by far the largest aid program for the PLO can be found in the United Nations, which is funded primarily by the United States. During the 1948 war that established the nation of Israel, some half a million palestinian Arabs panicked and fled to surrounding areas.137 Rather than allow them to resettle, the United Nations set up its Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to maintain these refugees in special camps as welfare dependents. These dozens of camps, in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza, remain under UNRWA administration to this very day. The UNRWA has spent billions of dollars, mostly from the United States, supposedly on such humanitarian projects as education, medicine, welfare, and other basic services, as well as to hire some 17,000 local palestinians to operate the program.138

In reality, the palestinians on staff have largely been PLO members who have seized control of the UNRWA. Much of this was discovered when the Israelis drove the PLO out of Lebanon in 1982. The refugee camps, and the schools and hospitals in particular, had been transformed into military bases containing vast stores of weapons. All U.N. schools indoctrinated palestinian youth in revolutionary PLO ideology, and some had even become terrorist training centers complete with weapons, uniforms, and modern technology. The UNRWA published various propaganda materials on behalf of the PLO, and some evidence indicated that the agency had secretly funneled money directly into PLO terrorist operations.139 In 1977, one PLO official told an undercover reporter that the UNRWA budget, then about $200 million per year, constituted almost the entire income for the PLO.140 Although estimates of the PLO budget vary widely, UNRWA spending may now pay for about half of all PLO activities.141

Since the 1970s, other U.N. agencies have also provided their resources to the PLO or its front groups in the West Bank and Gaza. These include the International Labor Organization, the World Health Organization, UNESCO, the U.N. Development Program, and about a dozen other agencies. The PLO helps direct the spending of these programs, and its members are trained on U.N. grants. Many U.N. agencies produce PLO propaganda materials, or host forums for PLO spokesmen. But most importantly, these agencies have been funding the growing PLO infrastructure in the West Bank and Gaza, which now organizes and sustains the intifada.142

The United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL), a peacekeeping force that operated from 1978 to 1982, was a spectacular example of U.N. collaboration with the PLO. UNIFIL ignored the formation of PLO military and terrorist bases in the “demilitarized” zone, allowed armed PLO units nearly unhindered movement, and refused to stop brazen terrorist attacks. UNIFIL provided supplies, including sophisticated communications equipment, to the PLO, and gave the PLO intelligence reports on Israeli military positions. Some UNIFIL troops were even caught smuggling explosives into Israel for terrorist purposes. Israel was finally forced to invade when the PLO began conducting attacks from within UNIFIL territory, sometimes even under the U.N. flag.143

It is little wonder that Yasir Arafat and other PLO leaders, and the Soviet Union, have since 1990 called for U.N. peacekeeping troops to protect a new PLO state in the West Bank and Gaza.144 The Clinton administration has recently joined this chorus, and the Rabin government of Israel is preparing to give in.145

The war to destroy Israel is waged against Jews and Arabs alike by a relatively small handful of Communists. However, it is not only the Holy Land that is in danger, for the PLO sees itself as part of a world revolution. If the PLO succeeds, the Communists will unleash global terrorism on an unprecedented scale. The hijackings of airplanes, kidnappings of Americans in Iran and Lebanon, and bombing of the World Trade Center are mere hints of the firestorm to come.

But at the same time, the Communist revolution and the PLO depend almost entirely on U.S. aid, and thus can easily be stopped. The American public would never approve such aid to Communists or terrorists, but most people have no idea that this is happening. The national news media simply buries the story. And therein lies the solution to stop the terrorists. We must educate our fellow Americans about the betrayal of Israel, and we must join together to withdraw the United States from the United Nations — not just from the UNRWA or some other agency, but from the entire U.N. The PLO and its Marxist allies have permeated that organization, guaranteeing that the war against Israel will always receive U.N. support until the United States leaves altogether.

This is easier to accomplish than it sounds. The U.S. House of Representatives, the lower house of Congress, is composed of 435 representatives, each elected from a district of about half a million citizens. The Constitution grants the House the sole power to initiate funding bills for all federal programs. This means that the House, by a simple majority vote, can override the Senate and even the President by cutting off the funding to any program it chooses, effectively abolishing that program. By voting to stop financing the United Nations, and to withhold foreign aid from countries backing the PLO, the House could destroy the PLO and assure Israel’s security. We need only 218 votes in the House — a majority by one — to achieve this goal.

The success of this campaign depends on you, as an informed citizen. You can pursue two activities that will help win the victory.

First, you must educate your fellow Americans. Tell your family, friends, and associates about this presentation, and encourage them to purchase copies of this tape or the transcript.… Raise the issues publicly wherever you can — in letters to the editor, at meetings of civic associations, and at your synagogue or church. Most of your neighbors would want to know this information as much as you do, but they probably have never heard of it before.

Second, encourage your newly informed friends to join you in political action. Your congressman’s address and phone number can be found in the government pages at the beginning of your phone book. Write letters to your representative. Visit his district office. Show up at town hall meetings by political candidates. Always ask the tough questions about the PLO, the peace conference, and the United Nations, and demand straight answers on how your representative stands on the issues. Your country is at stake, and you have the right to defend it. Because this is an election year [1994], politicians will pay extra attention to what you say. But this educational work will continue after the election, with letters and other contacts to remind your congressman that he represents you.

If you and your friends get involved while there is still time, the U.S. could withdraw from the United Nations within as little as one or two years. This would spell the end of the PLO, and severely disrupt the world Communist revolution. With your decisive involvement, we don’t have to be the next target.


59. Marx, K., “On the Jewish Question,” in Tucker, R.C., ed., The Marx-Engels Reader, second edition, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1978, p. 49.

60. Lumer, H., ed., Lenin on the Jewish Question, International Publishers, New York, 1974, p. 47.

61. Agwani, Op cit., pp. 9-13; Webster, N.H., The Surrender of an Empire, London, 3rd ed., 1931, pp. 360-365.

62. Sterling, Op cit., pp. 14-15.

63. Livingstone, N.C. and Halevy, D., Inside the PLO, William Morrow & Co., New York, 1990, pp. 68-70.

64. Sterling, Op cit., pp. 272-276.

65. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 201-211.

66. Ibid., pp. 67, 73.

67. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 64-65; Rees, J., “Why Americans must oppose the P.L.O.,” The Review of the News, Oct. 17, 1979, pp. 31-44 (p. 41); Parry, A., Terrorism, From Robespierre to Arafat, Vanguard Press, New York, 1976, p. 131.

68. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., p. 67; Sterling, Op cit., p. 277; Israeli, R., ed., PLO in Lebanon: Selected Documents, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1983, pp. 34-73.

69. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 77-78.

70. Sterling, Op cit., pp. 272-285; Israeli, Op cit., p. 7; Alexander, Y. and Sinai, J., Terrorism: The PLO Connection, Crane Russak, New York, 1989, pp. 126-127.

71. Sterling, Op cit., pp. 272-285; Israeli, Op cit., pp. 74-157; Rees, J., “Why Americans must oppose the P.L.O.,” Op cit., pp. 42-43; Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., pp. 121-136.

72. Rees, J., “Why Americans must oppose the P.L.O.,” Op cit., p. 33.

73. Ibid., pp. 31-44; Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., passim; Israeli, Op cit., passim; Sterling, Op cit., pp. 113-130, 272-285; Laffin, J., The P.L.O. Connections, Corgi Books, London, 1982, passim; Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Threat of PLO Terrorism, Jerusalem, 1985, pp. 17-22; Merari, A., PLO: Core of World Terror, Jaffee Centre for Strategic Studies, Tel Aviv University, Carta, Jerusalem, 1983, pp. 10-21; Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., passim.

74. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 158-160.

75. Ibid., p. 159.

76. Sterling, Op cit., p. 121.

77. Ibid., p. 122.

78. On Algeria, see Clark, M.K., Algeria in Turmoil, Op cit.; editorial staff, “If you want it straight,” “Testimony of Raoul Salan,” and du Berrier, H., “The opposition,” American Opinion, Sept. 1962, pp. 1-45, 49-58, 59-62; on Libya, see Sterling, Op cit., chapter 14, especially pp. 268-269, and ElWarfally, M.G., Imagery and Ideology in U.S. Policy Toward Libya, 1969-1982, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 1988, chapter 3; on Syria, see Hopwood, D., Syria 1945-1986: Politics and Society, Unwin Hyman, London, 1988, especially chapter 4 and p. 56; Syria completed its invasion and annexation of Lebanon in October, 1990, as recounted in Bard, M.G. and Himelfarb, J., Myths and Facts, Near East Report, Washington, D.C., 1992, p. 106; the takeover of South Yemen by Habash’s Arab Nationalist Movement is mentioned in Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., p. 202, and its final conversion to full Communism in Sterling, Op cit., pp. 89-90, 253-254; Communist influence over, and attempts to conquer, North Yemen are referred to in Davis, L.J., Myths and Facts 1989, Near East Report, Washington, DC, 1988, p. 36, in Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., pp. 238-239, in Sterling, Op cit., p. 257, and in Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., p. 116, and the final merger with South Yemen is mentioned by Carapico, S., in Middle East Report, Nov./Dec. 1992, pp. 43-44; on Iraq, see Darwish, A. and Alexander, G., Unholy Babylon, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1991, especially pp. 20-24, and al-Khalil, S., Republic of Fear, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1990, especially pp. 12-13, 66, 183-184ff, 226-227, and chapter 7 passim.

79. Rees, J., “How Jimmy Carter betrayed the Shah,” The Review of the News, Feb. 21, 1979, pp. 31-48.

80. Taheri, A., Holy Terror: Inside the World of Islamic Terrorism, Adler & Adler, Bethesda, MD, 1987, p. 79; Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., pp. 72-73; Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 150-154.

81. “Islamic fundamentalism: The threat to peace,” American Jewish News, Op cit.; McAlvany, “Russian strategic deception: The ‘new’ Communist threat,” Op cit., pp. 11, 20; “Gorbachev’s gulf, too,” The Economist, Oct. 24, 1987, pp. 13-14.

82. Sterling, Op cit., chapter 12.

83. Davis, Myths and Facts 1989, Op cit., pp. 134-135; Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., pp. 11-14, chapters 6-7.

84. For examples of Shi’ite opposition to the Ayatollah Khomeini, see Taheri, Op cit., p. 163, and Pahlavi, Shah Mohammed Reza, Answer to History, Op cit., chapter 11.

85. Taheri, Op cit., p. 217.

86. Rees, J., “How Jimmy Carter betrayed the Shah,” Op cit., pp. 39-47; Taheri, Op cit., p. 175.

87. Taheri, Op cit., pp. 95-99.

88. Ibid., pp. 100-102.

89. Ibid., 177; Laffin, J., Holy War: Islam Fights, Grafton Books, London, 1988, p. 79.

90. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 212-216, 267-275; Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., p. 186.

91. Taheri, Op cit., pp. 76-84.

92. Schiff, Z. and Ya’ari, E., Intifada, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1990, pp. 56-57; Black, I. and Morris, B., Israel’s Secret Wars, Grove Weidenfeld, New York, 1991, p. 468.

93. Abu-Amr, Z., “Hamas: A historical and political background,” Journal of Palestine Studies, XXII (4), Summer, 1993, pp. 5-19 (pp. 16-17).

94. Netanyahu, B., A Place Among the Nations, Bantam Books, New York, 1993, pp. 220-221.

95. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., p. 84.

96. Davis, L.J., Op cit., pp. 90-93.

97. Israeli, Op cit., pp. 281-288.

98. Davis, L.J., Op cit., p. 92.

99. Emerson, S., The American House of Saud, Franklin Watts, New York, 1985, chapter 14.

100. Rees, J., “Why Americans must oppose the P.L.O.,” Op cit., pp. 43-44; National Lawyers Guild, 1977 Middle East Delegation, Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-Occupied West Bank and Gaza, National Lawyers Guild, New York, 1978.

101. Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., pp. 117-118; “U.N. Council condemns Hebron killings,” San Francisco Chronicle, 3-19-94, pp. A1, A15.

102. Journal of Palestine Studies, XXII (3), Spring 1993, pp. 157-159.

103. Davydkov, R., The Palestine Question, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1984, pp. 23-24.

104. Ibid., pp. 233-248.

105. Arafat, Y., “We are optimistic,” World Marxist Review, Sept. 1987, pp. 47-50; “Stronger solidarity with the Palestinian people’s struggle in the occupied territories: Statement by the Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Arab East,” Information Bulletin, Feb. 1988, p. 37; “Israeli actions are state terrorism: Statement by the Central Secretariat, Communist Party of India,” Information Bulletin, March 1988, p. 25; “For speeding up a Middle East international conference: Joint statement by the Communist Parties of Jordan, Palestine and Israel,” Information Bulletin, March 1988, pp. 25-26; “Gus Hall: The Middle East — the moment of truth,” Information Bulletin, March 1988, p. 26.

106. Tamari, S., “Left in limbo: Leninist heritage and Islamist challenge,” Middle East Report, Nov.-Dec. 1992, pp. 16-21; Cobban, H., “Palestinian relationships inside and outside the occupied territories,” American-Arab Affairs, Winter 1989-90, pp. 38-42; Sosebee, S.J., “The palestinian women’s movement and the intifada: A historical and current analysis,” American-Arab Affairs, Spring 1990, pp. 81-91; Lockard, J., “U.S. aid: Subsidizing collective punishment of palestinians,” American-Arab Affairs, Summer 1989, p. 68; Schiff and Ya’ari, Op cit., passim.

107. Schiff and Ya’ari, Op cit., chapter 2 and pp. 101-105, 198-202.

108. Ibid., chapter 7; Cobban, Op cit., p. 40; Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 44-45.

109. Abu-Amr, Z., Op cit., pp. 14-15; Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., p. 171.

110. See, for example, the number of PLO-affiliated professors in the delegation to the peace talks, “The Madrid peace conference,” Journal of Palestine Studies, XXI (2), Winter 1992, pp. 122-123.

111. Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., pp. 170-172; “Israel reopens West Bank university,” San Francisco Chronicle, 8-22-91, p. A21.

112. “Israelis blow up homes,” Orange County Register, 10-13-88, p. A22; “Arabs demand U.N. protection,” San Francisco Chronicle, 3-27-92, p. A19.

113. Rosenthal, D., “The geography of fear,” San Francisco Examiner Image, 10-6-91, pp. 8-15, 32; Schiff and Ya’ari, Op cit., passim.

114. Tamari, S., Op cit., p. 18.

115. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Threat of PLO Terrorism, Op cit., p. 21; Rees, J., “Why Americans must oppose the P.L.O.,” Op cit., pp. 35-37.

116. Emerson, S., “Meltdown,” The New Republic, Nov. 23, 1992, pp. 26-29; Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., pp. 168-170.

117. Emerson, “Meltdown,” Op cit., p. 26.

118. J.H., “Intrafada violence continues,” Near East Report, Dec. 14, 1992, p. 229.

119. Rosenthal, D., “The geography of fear,” Op cit., p. 14; Los Angeles Times, 1-20-88, pp. 1, 8.

120. “The war of stones,” Simon Wiesenthal Center Response, May 1988, pp. 5-7.

121. New York Times, “Rights group lays blame on PLO for Arab deaths,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1-10-94, p. A9.

122. Netanyahu, Op cit., p. 224.

123. Abu-Amr, Z., Op cit., p. 17.

124. Emerson, S., “Meltdown,” Op cit., p. 26; Bar-Illan, D., “Israel’s new pollyannas,” Commentary, Sept., 1993, pp. 27-32 (p. 30).

125. Rubin, B., “How low will we stoop for Arafat?”, Los Angeles Times, 3-22-90; Emerson, S., “The Bush administration’s PLO cover-up,” The Wall Street Journal, 3-22-90.

126. Williams, D., “Likud blames U.S. for Shamir’s downfall,” Los Angeles Times, 3-22-90, p. A6.

127. “Christopher leans on Israeli, Arab negotiators,” San Francisco Chronicle, 4-28-93, p. A11; Washington Post, “U.S. makes proposal on palestinian self-rule,” San Francisco Chronicle, 5-13-93, p. A12.

128. Ibrahim, Y.M., New York Times, “Israel-PLO deal for mutual recognition,” San Francisco Chronicle, 9-9-93, pp. A1, A13; Broder, J.M. and Kempster, N., Los Angeles Times, “Israel, PLO give peace a chance,” San Francisco Chronicle, 9-14-93, pp. A1, A13.

129. Kempster, N. and Parks, M., “Israel, Syria near accord, negotiators say,” Los Angeles Times, 9-3-93, pp. A1, A15; “Rabin reaffirms Israel’s offer to withdraw from Lebanon,” San Francisco Chronicle, 9-17-93, pp. A1, A18.

130. “U.N. Council condemns Hebron killings,” Op cit.

131. Lockard, J., Op cit., pp. 65+.

132. Goshko, J.M., Washington Post, “U.S. issues global call to help palestinians,” San Francisco Chronicle, 9-21-93, pp. A1, A13.

133. Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., p. 241.

134. Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., pp. 167-169.

135. New York Times, “Saudis asked to aid palestinians again,” San Francisco Chronicle, 4-29-93, p. A14.

136. Sutton, A.C., The Best Enemy Money Can Buy, Liberty House Press, Billings, MT, 1986.

137. Bard and Himelfarb, Op cit., pp. 120-121.

138. Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., pp. 182-183; Viorst, M., Reaching for the Olive Branch: UNRWA and Peace in the Middle East, Middle East Institute, Washington, DC, 1989.

139. Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., pp. 182-183; Schoenberg, H.O., A Mandate for Terror: The United Nations and the PLO, Shapolsky Publishers, New York, 1989, chapter 9; Laffin, The PLO Connections, Op cit., pp. 57-58; Israeli, Op cit., pp. 294, 296.

140. Schiff, M., “How U.S. tax dollars pay for PLO terrorism,” Soldier of Fortune, Winter 1977, as quoted in The Review of the News, 6-16-82, pp. 37-38.

141. Compare the current budget, nearly $250 million (Viorst, Op cit., p. 60), with one estimate of PLO annual spending, at about $400 million (Livingstone and Halevy, Op cit., p. 171).

142. Schoenberg, Op cit., chapters 7, 9; Alexander and Sinai, Op cit., pp. 183-186; Lockard, J., Op cit.

143. Schoenberg, Op cit., chapter 8; Laffin, The PLO Connections, Op cit., pp. 58-59.

144. “Arafat urges U.N. to prevent ‘extermination’,” San Francisco Chronicle, 5-26-90, pp. A1, A20; “Arabs demand U.N. protection,” San Francisco Chronicle, 3-27-92, p. A19.

145. “New plan to put foreign force in Israel territories,” San Francisco Chronicle, 3-23-94, pp. A1, A13.